Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Sabah - A brief History

Brunei Sultanate
1368 - 1877
( West Coast )

1368                Brunei Sultanate founded by Awang Alak Betatar ( Sultan Muhammad Shah )

1485-1524       Golden Age of Brunei.
                        Brunei Sultanate control all of Borneo coastline, island of Luzon & Seludong

1658                Brunei ceded the northern and eastern part of North Borneo to Sulu, after the Brunei Civil War

Sulu Sultanate
1658 – 1878
( East Coast )

1405    Sulu Sultanate founded by Johorean Sharif ul-Hashim ( Sultan Sharif )

1578    independence from Brunei Sultanate after the Castilan War

1658    Brunei ceded the northern and eastern part of North Borneo to Sulu, after the Brunei Civil War

American Trading Company of Borneo, ATCB
11 Aug 1865 – 11 Aug 1875

1865, Aug 11th             Leasing by Sultan Abdul Momin of Brunei of territories comprising Sulaman River & Paitan River to Charles Lee Moses, the American Consul General of Brunei
1865, Aug 11th             Leasing by Pengiran Temenggung of dependencies of Benoni, Kimanis, Sulaman & Tempasuk to Charles Lee Moses
1865, Sep 9th          Concessionary rights sold to American Trading Company of Borneo.
1865, Nov 24th             Commission from Sultan of Brunei appointing Torry Rajah of Ambong and Maroodoo
1865, Dec                    Ellena founded.
1875                  Concessionary rights sold to Gustavus Baron von Overbeck

Dent & Overbeck Association, ODA
27 Oct 1877 – 1881

1877, Mar 27th                       Dent & Overbeck Association
1877, Dec 29th             Grant by Sultan Abdul Momin of Brunei of territories comprising Gaya Bay & Sapangar Bay, Sulaman River & Paitan River, & Sibuco River.
1877, Dec 29th             Grant by Pangeran Tumongong of Brunei of the Province of Kimanis and Benoni
1877, Dec 29th             Commission from Sultan of Brunei appointing Gustavus Baron de Overbeck Maharaja of Sabah and Rajah of Gaya & Sandakan.

1878, Jan 22nd             Grant by Sultan Jamaladzam of Sulu of Territories and Lands on the Mainland of Borneo
1878, Jan 22nd             Commission from Sultan of Sulu appointing Baron de Overbeck Datu Bandahara and Rajah of Sandakan.

North Borneo Provisional Association, NBPA
 Apr 1881 – Jun 1882

1881, Mar                   British North Borneo Provisional Association
1881, May                   William Hood Treacher appointed 1st Governor of NB
1881, Dec 17th             Kudat made capital

North Borneo Chartered Company, NBCC
(British North Borneo Company, BNBC )
1 Nov 1881– 26Jun 1946

1881, Nov 1st               Charter Granted to the British North Borneo Company
1882, Apr 2nd               British North Borneo Chartered Company formed
1884, Mar 20th            Grant by Pangeran Muda Damit Tejudin of the River Putatan
1884, Nov 5th               Cession by Sultan of Brunei, Pangeran Bandahara & Pangeran di Gadong of Territory from Si Putong to Kwala Paniow
1884                            Capital moved to Sandakan

1885, Mar 7th             Madrid Protocol

1888, May 12th            Protectorate of United Kingdom

1889, May 12th            Grant by Pangeran Shahbandar of Padas Damit

1901, Sep 7th               Grant by Sultan of Brunei of Territory between Sepitong and Trusan Rivers

Japanese Occupation 軍事占領
1 Dec 1941 – 10 Jun 1945

1 Dec 1941 – 10 Jun Under the Japanese occupation, British Borneo was renamed North Borneo (北ボルネオ), Labuan as Maida Island (前田島), and Dutch territories as South Borneo (南ボルネオ). 

North Borneo was divided into 5 province : Kuching (久鎮州), Miri (美里州),  Sibu (志布州),  Eastern Sabah  (東岸州), Western Sabah (西岸州).

British Military Administration, BMA
 12 Sep 1945 – 1 Jul 1946

1945, Aug 15th             Surrender of Japan
1945, Sep 12th             British Military Administration
1946, Jul 1st                 Crown Colony of North Borneo

British Crown Colony
 1 Jul 1946 – 30 August 1963

1952                            Radio Sabah
1953                            Sabah Times
1962, Jan 17th              Cobbold Commission
1962, Jun 21st              Cobbolt Commission recommended the joining of North Borneo along with Malaya, Singapre and Sarawak to form Malaysia
1962, Aug 13-14th        14-Point Memorandum ( later 20-Point )
1962, Sep 12th             North Borneo legislative council agreed to the formation of Malaysia

Sabah – Independence
 31 August 1963 – 15 Sep 1963

Sabah - Malaysia
 16 Sep 1963 –

1963, Jan 20th              Indonesia launched Konfrontasi
1963, Jul 9th                 Malaysia Agreement signed at London
1963, Jul 31st              Malaysia Act 1963 enacted
1963, Aug 8th               Brunei rejected the proposal
1963, Sep 16th             Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah formed Malaysia
1965, Aug 9th               Singapore ceased to be a state of Malaysia

2012, Sep 16th            Malaysia Day made Public Holiday


Monday, February 12, 2018

Edible Gastropods of Sarawak

Sarawak comprises of vast areas of wetland which is the habitat of huge number of edible gastropods. Among the wetland faunal composition, the edible gastropod is one of the important sources of animal protein for the local communities. This diversity of edible gastropod was studied from seven Divisions of Sarawak namely Kuching, Sibu, Mukah, Bintulu, Miri, Limbang and Lawas ( Figure 1 ). Samples were collected from the wet market and catches from local fishermen. A total of 21 species representing 11 families and 16 genera of edible gastropods were identified from Sarawak ( Table 1, Figure 2 ) . Cerithidea spp. was represented by three species while both Nerita and Pomacea were made up of three and two species each. Others were each represented by one single species. Six edible gastropod species belonged to the freshwater habitat while seven and eight species were recorded from brackish and marine habitats, respectively. Cerithidea and Pomacea showed wide geography amongst the Division and also highly distributed. Edible gastropods have high market value in the state of Sarawak and contribute significantly to the livelihoods of the certain indigenous communities in the state.

H. Hamli, M.H. Idris, M.K. Abu Hena, S.K. Wong and A. Arshad, 2013. Checklist and Habitat Descriptions of Edible Gastropods from Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 8: 412-418.

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Sarawak's Coat-of-Arms

1841–1946 Kingdom of Sarawak
The heraldic arms of the Brooke dynasty of the Kingdom of Sarawak were based on the emblem used by James Brooke. It consisted of a red and black cross on yellow shield, crested by a badger, known in heraldic parlance as a "brock" and hence alluding to the dynastic surname. A crown was added in 1949, and the shield design was used as the basis of the Sarawak flag until 1973.

1946–1963 Crown Colony of Sarawak
 1963–1973  Sarawak ( Malaysia )
A shield version of Sarawak flag was used as Sarawak’s coat of arm.  The coat of arms was used way after Sarawak joined the Federation of Malaysia.

1973–1988 Sarawak ( Malaysia )
The current coat of arms was established in 1973. The shield features a symbolic wing-spread Kenyalang or Rhinoceros Hornbill with the shield bearing the state flag.  The hornbill's wings have 13 feathers, which represent the states in Malaysia.   The Hibiscus represent the Malaysia's national flower which appears on the right and left sides of the bird's legs and the hornbill is perched on a banner bearing the words "Hidup Selalu Berkhidmat" 

1988-present  Sarawak ( Malaysia )

In 1988, the flag was replaced with the current version
along with yet another new state anthem and motto, Ibu Pertiwiku and Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti . The new design was adopted on the 25th anniversary of Sarawak joining the Federation of Malaysia.  It retains the same colour scheme as the flag of the former kingdom, with two significant changes: the cross was replaced with two diagonal bars and the crown was substituted with a nine-pointed star symbolising the original nine divisions of Sarawak, in order to eliminate any overt references to Christianity and a sovereign monarchy.   With the new flag, the state flag shield too was replace accordingly, along with the motto “ Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti”

Sunday, September 25, 2016













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