Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Sabah - A brief History

Brunei Sultanate
1368 - 1877
( West Coast )

1368                Brunei Sultanate founded by Awang Alak Betatar ( Sultan Muhammad Shah )

1485-1524       Golden Age of Brunei.
                        Brunei Sultanate control all of Borneo coastline, island of Luzon & Seludong

1658                Brunei ceded the northern and eastern part of North Borneo to Sulu, after the Brunei Civil War

Sulu Sultanate
1658 – 1878
( East Coast )

1405    Sulu Sultanate founded by Johorean Sharif ul-Hashim ( Sultan Sharif )

1578    independence from Brunei Sultanate after the Castilan War


1658    Brunei ceded the northern and eastern part of North Borneo to Sulu, after the Brunei Civil War



American Trading Company of Borneo, ATCB
11 Aug 1865 – 11 Aug 1875

1865, Aug 11th             Leasing by Sultan Abdul Momin of Brunei of territories comprising Sulaman River & Paitan River to Charles Lee Moses, the American Consul General of Brunei
1865, Aug 11th             Leasing by Pengiran Temenggung of dependencies of Benoni, Kimanis, Sulaman & Tempasuk to Charles Lee Moses
1865, Sep 9th          Concessionary rights sold to American Trading Company of Borneo.
1865, Nov 24th             Commission from Sultan of Brunei appointing Torry Rajah of Ambong and Maroodoo
1865, Dec                    Ellena founded.
1875                  Concessionary rights sold to Gustavus Baron von Overbeck


Dent & Overbeck Association, ODA
27 Oct 1877 – 1881

1877, Mar 27th                       Dent & Overbeck Association
1877, Dec 29th             Grant by Sultan Abdul Momin of Brunei of territories comprising Gaya Bay & Sapangar Bay, Sulaman River & Paitan River, & Sibuco River.
1877, Dec 29th             Grant by Pangeran Tumongong of Brunei of the Province of Kimanis and Benoni
1877, Dec 29th             Commission from Sultan of Brunei appointing Gustavus Baron de Overbeck Maharaja of Sabah and Rajah of Gaya & Sandakan.

1878, Jan 22nd             Grant by Sultan Jamaladzam of Sulu of Territories and Lands on the Mainland of Borneo
1878, Jan 22nd             Commission from Sultan of Sulu appointing Baron de Overbeck Datu Bandahara and Rajah of Sandakan.


North Borneo Provisional Association, NBPA
 Apr 1881 – Jun 1882

1881, Mar                   British North Borneo Provisional Association
1881, May                   William Hood Treacher appointed 1st Governor of NB
1881, Dec 17th             Kudat made capital


North Borneo Chartered Company, NBCC
(British North Borneo Company, BNBC )
1 Nov 1881– 26Jun 1946



1881, Nov 1st               Charter Granted to the British North Borneo Company
1882, Apr 2nd               British North Borneo Chartered Company formed
1884, Mar 20th            Grant by Pangeran Muda Damit Tejudin of the River Putatan
1884, Nov 5th               Cession by Sultan of Brunei, Pangeran Bandahara & Pangeran di Gadong of Territory from Si Putong to Kwala Paniow
1884                            Capital moved to Sandakan

1885, Mar 7th             Madrid Protocol

1888, May 12th            Protectorate of United Kingdom

1889, May 12th            Grant by Pangeran Shahbandar of Padas Damit

1901, Sep 7th               Grant by Sultan of Brunei of Territory between Sepitong and Trusan Rivers


Japanese Occupation 軍事占領
1 Dec 1941 – 10 Jun 1945


1 Dec 1941 – 10 Jun Under the Japanese occupation, British Borneo was renamed North Borneo (北ボルネオ), Labuan as Maida Island (前田島), and Dutch territories as South Borneo (南ボルネオ). 

North Borneo was divided into 5 province : Kuching (久鎮州), Miri (美里州),  Sibu (志布州),  Eastern Sabah  (東岸州), Western Sabah (西岸州).
1945



British Military Administration, BMA
 12 Sep 1945 – 1 Jul 1946

1945, Aug 15th             Surrender of Japan
1945, Sep 12th             British Military Administration
1946, Jul 1st                 Crown Colony of North Borneo


British Crown Colony
 1 Jul 1946 – 30 August 1963

1952                            Radio Sabah
1953                            Sabah Times
1962, Jan 17th              Cobbold Commission
1962, Jun 21st              Cobbolt Commission recommended the joining of North Borneo along with Malaya, Singapre and Sarawak to form Malaysia
1962, Aug 13-14th        14-Point Memorandum ( later 20-Point )
1962, Sep 12th             North Borneo legislative council agreed to the formation of Malaysia



Sabah – Independence
 31 August 1963 – 15 Sep 1963


Sabah - Malaysia
 16 Sep 1963 –

1963, Jan 20th              Indonesia launched Konfrontasi
1963, Jul 9th                 Malaysia Agreement signed at London
1963, Jul 31st              Malaysia Act 1963 enacted
1963, Aug 8th               Brunei rejected the proposal
1963, Sep 16th             Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah formed Malaysia
1965, Aug 9th               Singapore ceased to be a state of Malaysia

2012, Sep 16th            Malaysia Day made Public Holiday



                                                           
                                               
                                               





Monday, February 12, 2018

Edible Gastropods of Sarawak



Sarawak comprises of vast areas of wetland which is the habitat of huge number of edible gastropods. Among the wetland faunal composition, the edible gastropod is one of the important sources of animal protein for the local communities. This diversity of edible gastropod was studied from seven Divisions of Sarawak namely Kuching, Sibu, Mukah, Bintulu, Miri, Limbang and Lawas ( Figure 1 ). Samples were collected from the wet market and catches from local fishermen. A total of 21 species representing 11 families and 16 genera of edible gastropods were identified from Sarawak ( Table 1, Figure 2 ) . Cerithidea spp. was represented by three species while both Nerita and Pomacea were made up of three and two species each. Others were each represented by one single species. Six edible gastropod species belonged to the freshwater habitat while seven and eight species were recorded from brackish and marine habitats, respectively. Cerithidea and Pomacea showed wide geography amongst the Division and also highly distributed. Edible gastropods have high market value in the state of Sarawak and contribute significantly to the livelihoods of the certain indigenous communities in the state.



H. Hamli, M.H. Idris, M.K. Abu Hena, S.K. Wong and A. Arshad, 2013. Checklist and Habitat Descriptions of Edible Gastropods from Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 8: 412-418.





Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Sarawak's Coat-of-Arms


1841–1946 Kingdom of Sarawak
The heraldic arms of the Brooke dynasty of the Kingdom of Sarawak were based on the emblem used by James Brooke. It consisted of a red and black cross on yellow shield, crested by a badger, known in heraldic parlance as a "brock" and hence alluding to the dynastic surname. A crown was added in 1949, and the shield design was used as the basis of the Sarawak flag until 1973.





1946–1963 Crown Colony of Sarawak
 1963–1973  Sarawak ( Malaysia )
A shield version of Sarawak flag was used as Sarawak’s coat of arm.  The coat of arms was used way after Sarawak joined the Federation of Malaysia.



1973–1988 Sarawak ( Malaysia )
The current coat of arms was established in 1973. The shield features a symbolic wing-spread Kenyalang or Rhinoceros Hornbill with the shield bearing the state flag.  The hornbill's wings have 13 feathers, which represent the states in Malaysia.   The Hibiscus represent the Malaysia's national flower which appears on the right and left sides of the bird's legs and the hornbill is perched on a banner bearing the words "Hidup Selalu Berkhidmat" 


1988-present  Sarawak ( Malaysia )

In 1988, the flag was replaced with the current version
along with yet another new state anthem and motto, Ibu Pertiwiku and Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti . The new design was adopted on the 25th anniversary of Sarawak joining the Federation of Malaysia.  It retains the same colour scheme as the flag of the former kingdom, with two significant changes: the cross was replaced with two diagonal bars and the crown was substituted with a nine-pointed star symbolising the original nine divisions of Sarawak, in order to eliminate any overt references to Christianity and a sovereign monarchy.   With the new flag, the state flag shield too was replace accordingly, along with the motto “ Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti”






Sunday, September 25, 2016

《千字文》

《千字文》原名為《次韻王羲之書千字》,南朝梁(502年─549年)周興嗣所作的一首長韻文。它是一篇由一千個不重複的漢字組成的文章。

據說是梁武帝取了王羲之寫的一千個字體,令其親人練習書法,而後覺得雜亂無章,於是又命周興嗣(470年─521年)編為一篇文章。

《千字文》全篇主題清晰,章句文理一脈相承,層層推進,語言優美,詞​​藻華麗,幾乎是句句引經,字字用典。出典包括《易經》、《淮南子》、《詩經》、《尚書》、《禮記》、《春秋》、《論語》、《孝經》、《孟子》、《史記》、《神農本草經》、《管子》、《韓非子》、《莊子》、《漢書》。

《千字文》以儒家思想為主體,兼納自然、歷史、社會常識,寓意深刻、結構清晰、語言簡明優美,可以說是一首四言長詩。是用來教授兒童基本漢字之重要啓蒙讀物,和《三字經》、《百家姓》合稱“三百千”。




天地玄黄,宇宙洪荒。日月盈昃,辰宿列张。
寒来暑往,秋收冬藏。闰余成岁,律吕调阳。
云腾致雨,露结为霜。金生丽水,玉出昆冈。
剑号巨阙,珠称夜光。果珍李柰,菜重芥姜。
海咸河淡,鳞潜羽翔。龙师火帝,鸟官人皇。
始制文字,乃服衣裳。推位让国,有虞陶唐。
吊民伐罪,周发殷汤。坐朝问道,垂拱平章。
爱育黎首,臣伏戎羌。遐迩一体,率宾归王。
鸣凤在竹,白驹食场。化被草木,赖及万方。
盖此身发,四大五常。恭惟鞠养,岂敢毁伤。
女慕贞洁,男效才良。知过必改,得能莫忘。
罔谈彼短,靡恃己长。信使可覆,器欲难量。
墨悲丝染,诗赞羔羊。景行维贤,克念作圣。
德建名立,形端表正。空谷传声,虚堂习听。
祸因恶积,福缘善庆。尺璧非宝,寸阴是竞。
资父事君,曰严与敬。孝当竭力,忠则尽命。
临深履薄,夙兴温凊。似兰斯馨,如松之盛。
川流不息,渊澄取映。容止若思,言辞安定。
笃初诚美,慎终宜令。荣业所基,籍甚无竟。
学优登仕,摄职从政。存以甘棠,去而益咏。
乐殊贵贱,礼别尊卑。上和下睦,夫唱妇随。
外受傅训,入奉母仪。诸姑伯叔,犹子比儿。
孔怀兄弟,同气连枝。交友投分,切磨箴规。
仁慈隐恻,造次弗离。节义廉退,颠沛匪亏。
性静情逸,心动神疲。守真志满,逐物意移。
坚持雅操,好爵自縻。都邑华夏,东西二京。
背邙面洛,浮渭据泾。宫殿盘郁,楼观飞惊。
图写禽兽,画彩仙灵。丙舍旁启,甲帐对楹。
肆筵设席,鼓瑟吹笙。升阶纳陛,弁转疑星。
右通广内,左达承明。既集坟典,亦聚群英。
杜稿钟隶,漆书壁经。府罗将相,路侠槐卿。
户封八县,家给千兵。高冠陪辇,驱毂振缨。
世禄侈富,车驾肥轻。策功茂实,勒碑刻铭。
盘溪伊尹,佐时阿衡。奄宅曲阜,微旦孰营。
桓公匡合,济弱扶倾。绮回汉惠,说感武丁。
俊义密勿,多士实宁。晋楚更霸,赵魏困横。
假途灭虢,践土会盟。何遵约法,韩弊烦刑。
起翦颇牧,用军最精。宣威沙漠,驰誉丹青。
九州禹迹,百郡秦并。岳宗泰岱,禅主云亭。
雁门紫塞,鸡田赤诚。昆池碣石,钜野洞庭。
旷远绵邈,岩岫杳冥。治本于农,务兹稼穑。
俶载南亩,我艺黍稷。税熟贡新,劝赏黜陟。
孟轲敦素,史鱼秉直。庶几中庸,劳谦谨敕。
聆音察理,鉴貌辨色。贻厥嘉猷,勉其祗植。
省躬讥诫,宠增抗极。殆辱近耻,林皋幸即。
两疏见机,解组谁逼。索居闲处,沉默寂寥。
求古寻论,散虑逍遥。欣奏累遣,戚谢欢招。
渠荷的历,园莽抽条。枇杷晚翠,梧桐蚤凋。
陈根委翳,落叶飘摇。游鹍独运,凌摩绛霄。
耽读玩市,寓目囊箱。易輶攸畏,属耳垣墙。
具膳餐饭,适口充肠。饱饫烹宰,饥厌糟糠。
亲戚故旧,老少异粮。妾御绩纺,侍巾帷房。
纨扇圆洁,银烛炜煌。昼眠夕寐,蓝笋象床。
弦歌酒宴,接杯举殇。矫手顿足,悦豫且康。
嫡后嗣续,祭祀烝尝。稽颡再拜,悚惧恐惶。
笺牒简要,顾答审详。骸垢想浴,执热愿凉。
驴骡犊特,骇跃超骧。诛斩贼盗,捕获叛亡。
布射僚丸,嵇琴阮箫。恬笔伦纸,钧巧任钓。
释纷利俗,并皆佳妙。毛施淑姿,工颦妍笑。
年矢每催,曦晖朗曜。璇玑悬斡,晦魄环照。
指薪修祜,永绥吉劭。矩步引领,俯仰廊庙。
束带矜庄,徘徊瞻眺。孤陋寡闻,愚蒙等诮。

谓语助者,焉哉乎也

《百家姓》

《百家姓》是一本关于漢姓的书,成书於北宋初。原收集姓氏411个,后增补到504个,其中单姓444个,复姓60个。

《百家姓》的次序不是各姓氏人口实际排列,是因为读来顺口,易学好记。

《百家姓》与《三字经》、《千字文》并称“三百千”,是中国古代幼儿的启蒙读物。

“趙錢孫李”成为《百家姓》前四姓是因为百家姓形成于宋朝的吴越钱塘地区,故而宋朝皇帝的赵氏、吴越國国王钱氏、吴越国王钱俶正妃孙氏以及南唐国王李氏成为百家姓前四位。





趙錢孫李 周吳鄭王 馮陳褚衛 蔣沈韓楊
朱秦尤許 何呂施張 孔曹嚴華 金魏陶姜
戚謝鄒喻 柏水竇章 雲蘇潘葛 奚范彭郎
魯韋昌馬 苗鳳花方 俞任袁柳 酆鮑史唐
費廉岑薛 雷賀倪湯 滕殷羅畢 郝鄔安常
樂于時傅 皮卞齊康 伍余元卜 顧孟平黃
和穆蕭尹 姚邵湛汪 祁毛禹狄 米貝明臧
計伏成戴 談宋茅龎 熊紀舒屈 項祝董梁
杜阮藍閔 席季麻強 賈路婁危 江童顏郭
梅盛林刁 鍾徐邱駱 高夏蔡田 樊胡凌霍
虞萬支柯 昝管盧莫 經房裘繆 干解應宗
丁宣賁鄧 郁單杭洪 包諸左石 崔吉鈕龔
程嵇邢滑 裴陸榮翁 荀羊於惠 甄麴家封
芮羿儲靳 汲邴糜松 井段富巫 烏焦巴弓
牧隗山谷 車侯虙蓬 全郗班仰 秋仲伊宮
甯仇欒暴 甘鈄厲戎 祖武符劉 景詹束龍
葉幸司韶 郜黎薊薄 印宿白懷 蒲邰從鄂
索咸籍賴 卓藺屠蒙 池喬陰鬱 胥能蒼雙
聞莘黨翟 譚貢勞逄 姬申扶堵 冉宰酈雍
郤璩桑桂 濮牛壽通 邊扈燕冀 郟浦尚農
溫別莊晏 柴瞿閻充 慕連茹習 宦艾魚容
向古易慎 戈廖庾終 暨居衡步 都耿滿弘
匡國文寇 廣祿闕東 歐殳沃利 蔚越夔隆
師鞏厙聶 晁勾敖融 冷訾辛闞 那簡饒空
曾毋沙乜 養鞠須豐 巢關蒯相 查后荊紅
游竺權逯 蓋益桓公 万俟司馬 上官歐陽
夏侯諸葛 聞人東方 赫連皇甫 尉遲公羊
澹臺公冶 宗政濮陽 淳于單于 太叔申屠
公孫仲孫 軒轅令狐 鍾離宇文 長孫慕容
鮮于閭丘 司徒司空 丌官司寇 仉督子車
顓孫端木 巫馬公西 漆雕樂正 壤駟公良
拓跋夾谷 宰父穀梁 晉楚閆法 汝鄢涂欽
段干百里 東郭南門 呼延歸海 羊舌微生
岳帥緱亢 況後有琴 梁丘左丘 東門西門
商牟佘佴 伯賞南宮 墨哈譙笪 年愛陽佟
第五言福 百家姓終